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Caesar, Julius

Born: 100-07-XX BCE Rome, Italy

Died: 44-03-15 BCE Rome, Italy

Roman general and statesman who played a crucial role in Roman military and political affairs. In 60 BCE, Caesar became consul of the Roman Republic. His victories in the Gallic Wars (58-50 BCE) extended Roman rule to the English Channel and the Rhine River. In 50 BCE, Caesar defied his superiors and marched his army across the Rubicon into Italy, sparking a civil war that would leave Caesar victorious over his rivals. He became the military dictator of the Roman Republic, scoring military victories in Egypt and Spain, and instituting constitutional, administrative, and political reforms in Rome. He remained in control until his assassination, which ushered in a series of civil wars that ended the Roman Republic and set the stage for the establishment and consolidation of the Roman Empire.

Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006).