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One of the earliest known civilizations, Egypt was an independent monarchy ruled by Pharaohs from 3150 BC until its conquest by the Persian Empire in 343 BC. During Abraham Lincoln's lifetime, Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire.

Ian Shaw, ed., The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Carl F. Petry, ed., Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume One: Islamic Egypt, 640–1517 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); M. W. Daly, Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume Two: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).