Fox Nation

Known to themselves as a Meskwaki and often paired with the Sac Tribe by the U.S. government, the Fox people were originally located around the Great Lakes in modern Ontario and the American Midwest. They fought several successful wars against the French, eventually becoming close allies of the Sac. Eventually the tribe was forced south into the western Midwest where they remained until the early 1830s, when some participated in the Black Hawk War with the Sac. Following the war, the U.S. government combined the two tribes and relocated them to the Iowa Territory. They remained there until Iowa attained statehood in 1846 and the U.S. government again relocated them to the Kansas Territory. Some permanently settled in Iowa after the state government allowed them to purchase land in the 1850s.

William T. Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958), 3-15, 141-224; Patrick J. Jung, The Black Hawk War of 1832 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007), 33-197.