State: Pennsylvania

Lat/Long: 40.8333, -76.0000

One of the original thirteen colonies, Pennsylvania ratified the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787, becoming the second state in the Union. The original capital was Philadelphia but moved to Lancaster in 1799 and finally to Harrisburg in 1812. Philadelphia also served as the nation's capital from 1790 to 1800. Pennsylvania was a free state and remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War.

Thomas H. Johnson, Oxford Companion to American History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), 206; Philip S. Klein and Ari Hoogenboom, A History of Pennsylvania 2nd and enlarged ed. (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010), 123, 201, 279-94; Allen C. Thomas, A History of Pennsylvania (Boston and New York: D. C. Heath, 1913), 185.