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Colombia

Lat/Long: 4.0000, -72.0000

Colombia is a republic located in northwestern South America. It is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea; on the east by Venezuela and Brazil; on the south by Peru and Ecuador, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Panama. Bogata is its capital. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Colombia was home to the Chibcha (Muisca) Indians. In the sixteenth century, Spanish explorers began arriving, and in the 1530s, the Spanish defeated the Chibchas and established Spanish sovereignty over the region. In 1718 and 1740, Spain placed Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama into the viceroyalty of New Granada. In 1819, Colombia achieved its independence from Spain under Simón Bolívar's leadership. Initially encompassing the entirety of New Granada, Colombia lost Venezuela and Ecuador when the two seceded in 1830. In the 1850s and 1860s, Colombia was in various confederations: the Grenadine Confederation (1858), United States of New Granada (1861), and the United States of Colombia (1863).

Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1988), 277-78.