Report of Joint Select Committee to Illinois Senate regarding the Condition of the State Bank of Illinois, [21 January 1840]1
The undersigned members of the Committee to which was refered the Joint Resolution of both branches of the Legislature, submit the following report to the House of Representatives. Senate2
In obedience to the joint resolution of both branches of the General Assembly, the committee ^undersigned^3 proceeded to examine into the condition of the State Bank of Illinois, and into such charges preferred against the Bank, as they deemed of sufficient importance, in their bearing upon the interests of the Community to claim the time and attention of your committee — the undersigned
As a reason for not going more minutely into an examination of the condition and conduct of the several branches of the institution, your committee ^the undersigned^ would state, that time has not been afforded them to visit the several branches, and their information, therefore, relative to the branches, is derived, in part, from witnesses called before and examined by the Committee ^undersigned^, but mainly from the statements under oath of the President and Cashier of the Parent Bank.
It will be recollected, that, during the session of 1836-7, a joint select committee was appointed by the Legislature of Illinois, to examine into the condition of the State Bank, with a view of ascertaining, among other things, whether said said institution would constitute a safe depository for the funds of the State—4
On the 18th day of February 1837, that committee submitted a report to the House of Representatives, and about the same time a report was also submitted to the Senate, which reports occupied most of the ground, from the organization of the Bank in 1835 to the then present time—
Your committee ^The undersigned^ deemed it an act of inutility, not to say of supererogation, to re-investigate and re-examine the same charges, examined and reported upon by the former committee: and have therefore directed their attention more particularly to the actings and doings of the Bank since February 1837.
After a labourus[laborious] and attentive investigation, the Committee ^undersigned^ have prepared the following report, which they beg leave to submit—
As your Committee ^the undersigned^ believed, that the Legislature wished information, to enlighten their judgment; and to assist them in coming to a conclusion, as to the propriety of renewing the forfeited charter of the Bank, they deemed it not improper to bestow most of their attention upon the following inquiries–
1. Whether there had been any circumstances of mismanagement of the affairs of the Bank, or mal-practices on the part of her officers, or any of them, against which
future legislation might guard, or which would render the institution unworthy of public confidence?
2. Whether the stock in said Bank, owned owned by the state, is safe: and, whether the interest of the State, and the interests of the people, would be consulted, by a renewal of the charter of the Bank?
On the first ground, By5 reference to the answer of the the joint resolution of both houses, it will be seen, that the first inquiry is, "whether the Bank has forfeited its charter?"
The 25th section of the charter, as amended, provides—That if the Bank shall, for sixty days after demand, neglect or refuse to pay its evidences of debt in specie, it shall forthwith close all its business, except the collecting and securing its debts, and the charter shall be forfeited.
More than sixty days have elapsed, since the Bank announced that it had suspended specie payments, and, as applications for the specie redemption of its liabilities have doubtless since been made and refused, the committee ^undersigned^ have no doubt, that the charter of the Bank would be declared forfeited by the proper court, on proof of such demand and refusal— The forfeiture, they believe, would date ^on the sixtieth day^ from the day of refusal— The charter, therefore, although not yet adjudicated upon, must certainly be forfeited, when the subject is brought before the proper tribunal—6
The next inquiry, which the committee is directed to make, is—"What rates, of the discounts of the Bank, have been to persons living out of the State?"
The examination of the Statements of the Bank has produced in our minds some surprize, at the smallness of the business, which the Bank has done with non-residents— The amount, now due the Bank, on loans and discounts to non residents, amounts to but 4 per cent of the whole sum of the debt due the Bank. The documents, which form a part of this report, give information, as to the distribution and character of this debt—
The committee are next instructed to inquire, as to the character of the transactions of the Bank, with the House of Nevins, Townsend & Co, of New York.
The object of the inquiries on this subject appears to be, to ascertain, if the Bank, in its transactions with this House, has loaned them money, either without, or at a low rate of, interest; or has suffered any portion of the stock, which they own in the Bank, to remain unpaid; and, whether the Bank did not keep in their hands, for their advantage, large sums of money, while our citizens, who applied to the Bank for funds in New York, were refused them—
A full examination of the accounts of this house, with the Bank, has assured the Committee ^undersigned^, that none of these abuses have existed—
This house has been employed by the Bank, as its agent in New York, for the transaction of most, if not all, of its business, to be done through an agent in that City. Their agency commenced, as appears from the documents herewith submitted, by the transfer to them from the Phenix Bank of New York, out of the funds received by that bank, in payment of the Capital Stock of the State Bank, paid in by individuals, of One Hundred Thousand Dollars: which they were instructed to vest in Gold Coin for the use of the Bank, and one half of which they shortly afterwards forwarded to the Bank in gold. The funds of the Bank having accumulated at this time in New York, from the paying in of the capital stock, and the Phenix Bank having refused to allow any Interest thereon, a portion of it was deposited with Nevins, Townsend & Co, who gave security, and allowed six per cent interest on it— It did not remain long in their hands, however—a demand for eastern exchange arising at home, which occasioned its withdrawal— For some time past, this House has constantly been the creditor of the Bank, for large sums of money paid on the checks of the Bank; and, at the present time, the Bank is their debtor in the sum of $150.000—
The Committee ^undersigned^ have not been able to discern any thing objectionable in these transactions— It would seem that this house was not only able, but willing, to make large advances to the Bank, and that some advantage must have resulted to those, whom the Bank was, by these means, enabled to accommodate with checks on New York— The necessity of some agency of the Bank in New York is obvious: and no reason is seen, for the preference of a Bank over private bankers, if they
<Page 6>are able to give satisfactory security, as is the case with the house of Nevins, Townsend & Co, who are bankers of high character—
The committee are next instructed to inquire, if the Capital Stock, subscribed by Samuel Wiggins of Cincinnati, has been paid in?
In prosecuting this inquiry, they have ascertained, that Samuel Wiggins was the original holder of the stock of the Bank, to the amount of nearly $200,000; on which he paid several of the earlier instalments: but, that, being disappointed in the sale of his stock, he applied to the Bank, and obtained loans to the amount of $108,000,7 for the refunding of which he pledged his Bank stock: which money, so obtained, was applied in paying up the calls made by the Bank, on the purchasers of its stock— This is said to be the only instance ^except an amt[amount] of about $3000. to other individuals^ in which this odious practice has been resorted to— A subterfuge and evasion of the law of this character has been practised in other states to an alarming extent, so as to make the capital of particular banks rest upon a paper, instead of a metallic, basis— While your ^the^ committee ^undersigned^ regret, that any, even a solitary, case of this sort, should have been tolerated by the Directors of the State Bank, and do not incline to offer for it any palliation whatever, they at the same time feel highly gratified, that this practice, so obnoxious to well founded objection, has not been general; but that all the other payments of subscriptions upon stock have been made in gold and silver, or in such funds as were authorized to be received by the charter of the Bank
It has also been made the duty of the committee to ascertain, the nature of the transactions of the Bank with the house of Denman of Philadelphia— whether any loans were made them, whether they were permitted the free use of money, collected by the falling due of bills drawn on them, on account of pork, bacon, lard & lead, shipped them by the Bank— and whether any bills, drawn on them, have been renewed to prevent protest—
The Committee ^undersigned^ have not been able, in their examination, to find the slightest trace of any connexion between the Bank and the house in question, other than that, which has grown out of the purchase, by the Parent Bank and Alton Branch, from our citizens, of bills of exchange drawn on said house. Mr Denman is believed, by the Committee ^undersigned^, to be a ^responsible^ respectable and wealthy commission merchant, a part of whose business is, dealing in western produce as agent for the shippers, and they feel it is due to him to state—that all the bills on him, held by the bank, have been fully paid, when due—
The next subject of enquiry is the transaction of the Bank with the house of Grigg & Weld of Boston—
It appears that the bank was the holder of about 70.000 $ of the acceptance of this House of Dfts[Drafts] drawn on them at Alton and negotiated by the Branch of the bank there when they failed and since that time this debt has been reduced to $23000 which Sum is considered by the offices of the bank as being pretty
<Page 8>well secured.
Intimately connected with this branch of ^the^ inquiry is the transactions of the bank with the house of Godfrey Gilman & Co of Alton,
The tabular statement of the Cashier shews[shows] the amounts of the liabilities of this house, as drawers discounts and endorsers, to have swolen to the immense amount of $800.748.00 which has since been reduced to the sum of Three hundred ^$419.358.00^ Dollars—
This debt also is considered to be sound made safe by collateral security
^The undersigned^ Your Committee feel less reluctance in introducing the names of these individuals, and their private accounts with the Bank from the fact that public rumor was rife with reports and Charges against them, and had not failed to set forth the facts in as glowing colors at least as they meritted
These two cases are deemed sufficient, to demonstrate the impolicy, of the bank extending such large accomodations to individuals or firms— many objections might be urged to this course, the Committee ^undersigned^ however will proceed to notice only a few of them
1st It deprives the bank of the power
of fulfiling one of its important functions towit the extending its accomodations to the Community generally
2d. It is exceedingly hazardous to risk so much upon the Solvency of a single individual or firm, as a single failure may result in the loss of the entire debt
3d. The individual or firm having access to the Bank and being permitted the free use of its funds may monopolize the trade in any speculation or enterprise in which he chooses to embark
4th Nothing is better calculated to engender heartburnings and to enlist enemies of the most hostile character against a bank than for the Community to entertain the belief that the institution is used for the benefit of the few to the exclusion of the many— It will be recollected that a charge similar to this— was made against the late bank of the United States and to sustain that charge it was urged that Mr T Biddle in Oct. 1830 was indebted to that institution in the sum of $1.120.000— if the objection had any weight in it as applied to the United States Bank with its immense capital and circulation with how much greater
<Page 10>force does the objection apply to our Bank with having a circulation less than $3,000,000
It is understood that the Directors of the Parent house aware of the impropriety of this course have adopted measures to restrain directors of branches in again making such excessive loans— while your Committee ^the undersigned^ decidedly disapprobate this practice of extending such large accomodations to individuals or firms, they are gratified to have the opportunity to hear testimony that the bank ^in a large majority of cases^ has made her discounts to dealers wanting small sums for immediate use, as will be seen by reference to a tabular statement furnished by the Bank and herewith presented
For the nature and extent of the loan to the Bank of Missouri— reference is made to the Copy of Contract, between the two banks which is herewith submitted
The transaction was not fully carried out and the amount loaned was soon returned
The arrangement seems to have been made from a desire on the part of this Bank to Cultivate friendly relations with a neighboring institution which was about to go into operation
It was a part of the Contract with the missouri bank that she should redeem
<Page 11>in specie if necessary the paper of the State Bank loaned to her, The Committee ^undersigned^ see nothing objectionable in this transaction
The Committee ^undersigned^ has is also charged with the enquiry whether the Bank has dealt or speculated in lead[,] lands or other Com^m^odity— So far as your ^the undersigned^ committee have been able to learn and ascertain the facts the bank has not engaged in speculating in lead, lands or any other commodity. In relation to this charge the Committee ^undersigned^ have availed themselves of the testimony of the officers of the Bank of the correspondence touching these transactions and of the testimony of respectable gentlemen residing at the point where these abuses are said to have occured
The bank professing to be desirous to enhance the price of lead, in the hand of the miner or smelter and to give the profits incident to its reshipment, to the Commission merchants of Alton rather than to those of Saint Louis, who had hitherto monopolized the trade, made arrangments to have the lead shipped to James G. Lamb of Alton— who was to act as the mutual agent of the owner of the lead
<Page 12>and the Bank in its reshipment and Sale upon the Sale of the lead after refunding the money advanced, when the shipment was first made to the Agent, say about three fourths of the market price of the lead together with interest commissions and other costs— and charges incident to the operation, the overplus accruing from the Sale thereof, was to be paid to the former owner thereby making the bank neither gaining or looser by the fluctuation in price of the article so so shipped—
The statement of the officers of the bank is coroberated by the testimony of the other witnesses examined as to this point as will more fully appear by the accompaning depositions
While your ^the undersigned^ committee fully acquit the bank of the charge of speculating or dealing in lead, they are constrained to animadvert upon this course as being unwise and improper on the part of the Bank— It is most obvious that so soon as the arrangement above aluded to was made public, (and its publicity could not easily be prevented) the Commission merchants of Saint Louis
and the Keen eyed speculator of the mineral region whose interest had been ^would be^ affected injuriously by this operation of the Bank, would wage a simultaneous war against the institution, and prompted by the ever living principle of cupidity each would try to excell the other in the malignity of the attack, and in the ferocity of its procecution—
Experience has shewn us that such was the result of this enterprise and the avowed good intentions of the Bank have not only been thwarted but much odium has been brot to bear against that institution in consequence of the lead operation
^The undersigned^ Your Committee believes that a Bank should pursue the "even tenor of her way" without lending her influence and her funds to stimulate any particular individual, in any particular branch of business, and whenever she departs from her plain path of duty, she is likely to awaken the vigilant jealousy of the people, and bring upon her own head either ruin or a loss of Confidence, which to a Bank is infinitely worse
In relation to the charge of the Bank dealing in Pork Your committee ^the undersigned^ would say that they
that they have no evidence of that fact, but on the contrary if such has been the case, those cognisant of it have failed to make the proof, there is one circumstance however connected with this charge to which the Committee ^undersigned^ will advert
The cashier of the Chicago Branch with a view of entering engaging in the purchase of pork with Mr E K Hubbard and Mr Dole procured their note to be discounted and obtained funds for that purpose aforesaid.
Altho your Committee ^the undersigned^ do not deny the right of any officer of the Bank in common with other Citizens to receive accomodations yet they deem it imprudent to embark in speculations of the staple commodities of the Country. and more especially so when the Bank is not prepared to accomodate all who might desire to obtain its paper
If the Bank at the time refered to had been prepared to discount the notes of all who applied this circumstance would probably have excited no remark, but so soon as the notes of others were rejected the disappointed applicants bitterly complain of favoriteism being extended to bank officers
If there is any one subject of which the people are more easily excited than any other and in regard to which their jealousy never slumbers, it is as to the privileges and powers of Banks
therefore every precaution should be used by those institutions to guard against such charges or at least to furnish them no foundation to rest upon—
^The undersigned^ Your Committee have not been able to asscertain that the bank has dealt or speculated in lands further than was absolutely necessary for the erection of her Banking houses
The next enquiry relates to the suspended debts of the Bank at the branches of alton, Galena and Chicago, as the examination ^in prosecution^ of this enquiry necessarily involves an exhibition to your Committee ^the undersigned^ of the transaction of the bank with a number of private individuals and as a publication of their names and accounts would effect no public good they have declined doing so & will only state the general results of the examination
A Considerable amount of debt exists at these Branches which at the present is unproductive and must require much time in the collection— although a proportion of this debt will in all probability be lost it is not believed that the loss will be sufficiently heavy to empair eventually the Capital stock of the Bank
It will be seen by a refference to an exhibit furnished by the Bank it appears that a ^contingent^ fund of about 170.000$ has been set apart which your Committee ^the undersigned believe^ will indemnify the Bank in any losses on her suspended debt and the other debts due the bank and branches are believed to be well secured
In answer to the enquiry what portions of the loans of the bank have been made to bank directors the Committee ^undersigned^ refer to a statement made by the officers of the Bank and accompanying this report
altho The amount due from bank directors was heretofore larger than it ^now^ is, and has been reduced by the going out of office of some who were largely indebted, your Committee ^the undersigned^ do not believe that the liability of the present directors is greater than might be safely extended to other individuals of equal number and wealth ^responsibility^ not connected with the Bank
The Committee next proceeded to investigate the charge contained in the following portion of the resolution to wit "also the character of the transaction between the acting fund Commissioner and the President of the Bank" in the negociation of the Bonds sold to constitute the stock owned by the ^State^ in that institution and if the Bonds at or since the time of their purchase by the Bank could not have been sold for Cash at or above par
and whether any money has been paid in to represent the stock of the State
The answer of the officers of the Bank to this enquiry is that after fruitless efforts to sell the stock at par it was offered to the bank in payment of the subscription of the state stock and was accepted by that institution and that the Bonds have ever since been offered at par but have not been sold
The amount of stock so sold to the Bank was $1765.000 and the sum of 335.000 Dollars was paid in Cash making in all $2,000,000.
While it is granted that the sale of the state bonds owned by the bank would have enabled that institution to enlarge her circulation and thereby accomodate more persons it is deemed very questionable whether in the present crisis the stockholders and note holders of the bank are not in a better condition than if the state bonds had been sold for the reason that they can be used to obtain funds either by sale or legal hypothecation
The next enquiry is "whether the bank has not dealt in funds ^unfairly^ in declaring dividends and reporting means as available which are in reality unavailable and in bad Debts"
The question of the propriety or impropriety of dividends of the bank must depend on the amount of its bad debts as compared with its surplus
<Page 18>fund and reserved profits—
These latter the officers of the bank have stated on their oaths they believe to equal or exceed the former & the committee ^undersigned^ have no reason to differ from them in opinion on this subject
Some of the Committee are aware that there has been a great anxiety with some persons connected with the public works that the dividends should be as large as possible and were fearful that these works ^this influence^ might have operated on the directors but they have no evidence of such a result
The last enquiry which the committee are directed to make is "whether houses connected with some of the principle officers of the Bank have not been accomodated largely to the exclusion of others equaly solvent"
The Committee ^undersigned^ feel it to be their duty to state without hesitation that there is not the slightest evidence to support a charge of this character
The Committee ^undersigned^ before passing on will offer some reflections upon ^the causes of ^ the suspension of specie payments by the bank. It will be recollected that when the Banks of Phila and New York suspended specie payments in 1837. that the western and Southern Banks almost simultaneously followed
in their train
When the Phila banks suspended specie payments last fall, many of the Western and Southern banks also found it necessary to close business— There is a chain of connexion between the banks of the interior and those of the Atlantic Cities which obliges the former to follow the course of the latter and the suspension of the banks located at the center of trade is felt by all the banks in the union
This is not attributable to any organic defect of the institutions themselves but to the irresistable law of trade and exchange which cannot be controuled by country banks
The position of our banks as ^ are ^ ^is^ doubly unfortunate they have not only to guard against the accumulation of their paper in the Eastern cities but have also to keep an eye upon Saint Louis, at which point much of the trade of the west centers
When we super-add to those to those causes the fact, that the funds (mostly gold and silver) of the General Government collected in the land offices in this State have (with the exception of a limited deposite in the branch at chicago) been transported to and deposited in the banks of Kentucky and
<Page 20>^the Bank of^ Missouri.
It must therefore be admitted that the banks of this State have had a particularly difficult task to perform in keeping up the credit of their paper
Under this view of the subject unless it is first shewn that our banks had some agency in bringing about the suspension by the Banks of the Atlantic Cities in 1837 & '39  Your committee perceives but little cause to visit any very heavy denunciations upon our institutions for doing an act which they were urged to by the most imperious necessity (and the performance of which was a benefit rather than an injury to the Citizens of our own State)
Our opinion as to the solvency of the Bank to meet and to pay all demands against it, will no doubt be expected from the committee.
It will be perceived from the Statements of the condition of the bank filed herewith, that her entire circulation amounts to $2,786.315 and that her whole liabilities are $3.924.002.84/100 while she has on hand $2,464,750 of Illinois State Bonds—$2.710,476 76/100 of notes Discounted and due from individuals to the Bank 440,132 10/100 Dollars of money loaned to individuals by the Bank and secured by mortgage on
real estate— Bills of Exchange $786.97489/100 Real Estate 72600.33/100 Dollars—due from other Banks. 435,624.27/100 dollars ^due by state of Illinois 141.08946/100^ notes of other Banks 152.275 dollars—of Gold and Silver Coin 473.86932/100 dollars making in all 7,677.79413/100 Dollars this sum your committee deems amply sufficient to indemnify not only note holders & other creditors of the bank but also to secure the State for all the Stock which she owns in the institution and in the event of the bank not being rescusitated your committee apprehends no damage of the State sustaining any loss upon its bank Stock
Before closing this branch ^report^ of the Subject it is but an act of justice due from the committee ^undersigned^ to the officers of the parent bank to state, that they afforded the committee every facility in their power to aid them in a free & full investigation into the condition of the bank and into the conduct of its various officers
of H ROrlando B FicklinA. Lincoln8
2On December 10, 1839, Orlando B. Ficklin in the House of Representatives introduced a resolution calling for the appointment of a joint select committee consisting of five representatives and three senators to investigate the condition of the State Bank and any charges preferred against it. The committee would have power to subpoena persons and records. The House adopted this resolution and appointed Ficklin, William Happy, Richard Murphy, John Moore, and Edward D. Baker to the committee. The House Journal does not record Abraham Lincoln as originally on the committee. On December 17, the Senate amended the resolution by striking out all after the word “Resolved” and inserted a substitute. The Senate resolution gave the select committee power, among other things, to ascertain if the Bank had forfeited its charter. After further amendment, the Senate adopted the resolution as substituted and amended, and named Byrd Monroe, James H. Woodworth, and John D. Wood to the committee. On December 21, the House concurred with the Senate amendments, and at this point Lincoln replaced Baker on the committee.
On December 26, Monroe and the other committee members sent a letter to Thomas Mather, president of the State Bank, requesting his cooperation in the committee’s investigation.
Illinois House Journal. 1839. 11th G. A., special sess., 7, 51-52, 69; Illinois Senate Journal. 1839. 11th G. A., special sess., 25, 26-27, 53.
3Where “undersigned” appears, either as an addition or otherwise, the author has deleted the original word “committee,” as result of the fact that a minority of the committee disagreed and made their own separate report.
4On January 19, 1837, the Senate adopted a resolution to investigate the State Bank and the Bank of Illinois. The House concurred on the same day, adopting the resolution to investigate the State Bank by a vote of 70 yeas to 10 nays, with Lincoln voting nay, and adopting the resolution to investigate the Bank of Illinois by a vote of 44 yeas to 35 nays, with Lincoln voting nay.
Illinois Senate Journal. 1836. 10th G. A., 1st sess., 244-45, 252-55; Illinois House Journal. 1836. 10th G. A., 1st sess., 302-306.
6Section twenty-five of the bank’s incorporation act stipulated that if the bank refused or neglected to redeem, for ten days after demand, its notes or evidence of debt in specie, the bank would discontinue operations and its charter would be forfeited. An act supplementary to the incorporation act gave the bank an additional fifty days to suspend specie payments. Under provisions of the incorporation act and an act supplementary thereto, if the bank did not resume specie payments within sixty days after suspension, it would lose its charter. In May 1837, the bank suspended specie payments in response to the Panic of 1837. In July, a special session of the legislature commenced to deal with the banking crisis. On July 21, the General Assembly passed an act suspending until the end of the next general or special session of the legislature provisions of the law requiring the bank to forfeit its charter for refusing to redeem its notes in specie for sixty days. In December 1839, the state’s debt crisis forced the bank to again suspend specie payments. Governor Thomas Carlin called the legislature into special session to deal with the crisis. In his message to the General Assembly, Carlin attacked the bank and demanded an investigation of its affairs. The legislators complied by establishing the joint select committee.
Illinois House Journal. 1839. 11th G. A., special sess., 30, 51, 69, 219-20, 221, 222; Illinois Senate Journal. 1839. 11th G. A., special sess., 25, 26, 41, 156, 159, 163, 166; Michael Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: A Life (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 1:138, 147; Charles Hunter Garnett, “State Banks of Issue in Illinois” (essay, University of Illinois, 1898), 30-35.
8On January 21, 1840, Ficklin presented this report of the joint select committee in the House of Representatives. Ficklin, Monroe, and Lincoln, all Whigs, joined Wood, a Democrat, in signing the report. On the same day, Woodworth, Happy, and Moore, all Democrats, issued their own minority report in the Senate. The minority report is not extant. Murphy, also a Democrat, signed neither report.
Lincoln attended twelve of the nineteen sub-committee meetings, but there is little evidence that he had much to do with the composition of the report carrying his signature.
Despite Carlin’s hostility and disagreement among legislators, the General Assembly passed an act on January 31, 1840, resuscitating the bank with, as Lincoln described in a letter to John T. Stuart, “some trifling modifications.” The act revived the bank’s charter and suspending stipulations on specie payments until the end of the next legislative session.
Illinois House Journal. 1839. 11th G. A., special sess., 30, 51, 69, 219-20, 221, 222; Illinois Senate Journal. 1839. 11th G. A., special sess., 25, 26, 41, 156, 159, 163, 166; Reports Made to the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Illinois (Springfield: William Walters, 1840), 1:339-59; Theodore C. Pease, ed., Illinois Election Returns, 1818-1848, vol. 18 of Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Library, 1923), 307, 320, 324; Michael Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: A Life, 1:138, 147; Charles H. Garnett, “State Banks of Issue in Illinois” (essay, University of Illinois, 1898), 30-35.
Autograph Document Signed, 21 page(s), Lincolniana Collection, Illinois State Archives (Springfield, IL)